Deutsche Bahn AG
Deutsche Bahn AG is an international provider of mobility and logistics services and operates in more than 130 countries across the globe. Every day, some 295,000 employees – 193,000 of which are located in Germany – are committed to ensuring that customers are provided with mobility and logistics services and that the related rail, road, ocean, and air traffic networks are operated and controlled efficiently.
With over 5 million passengers and almost one million tons of freight transported daily, the group's core business is its railway activities in Germany. Every day, Deutsche Bahn transports more than two million customers with its buses and operates a total of more than 31,000 train runs on its almost 34,000 kilometer-long, modern rail network, which is open to competition.
Each day, Deutsche Bahn's Passenger Transport Division transports over ten million passengers by train and bus Europe-wide. In the Transport and Logistics Division, more than 412 million tons of freight are transported via rail, and some 96 million shipments use land transport every year in the group's European network. In its world-wide networks, over 1.1 million tons of air freight and over 1.7 TEU of ocean freight are transported.
In addition to the internationalization of its business, the main focus of Deutsche Bahn's strategy is on creating networks and developing end-to-end travel and logistical chains across all modes of transport. The group thus meets the changing requirements of its customers, who are increasingly demanding efficient and eco-friendly services from a single provider. Already today, Deutsche Bahn AG is providing answers to the key issues of globalization, climate change, scarcity of resources, and deregulation.For the 2011 financial year, Deutsche Bahn Group posted revenues of about EUR 37.9 billion and an EBIT of EUR 2.309 billion after adjustments for special items.
Goals and Activities of the Emanuel Lasker Society
The Emanuel Lasker Society's task is to preserve, further explore, and popularize the intellectual and cultural legacy of Emanuel Lasker. To achieve this aim, it is required that Lasker's remaining original documents, manuscripts, photographs, books, etc. be brought together and analyzed extensively in research projects.
Beyond the preservation of Lasker's legacy, the Society's objective is to organize scientific symposia on the history and culture of chess and to present them in the form of publications. An important concern of the Society is to increase the social recognition of chess as both a contributor to cultural history and an ideal leisure activity for people of all ages. It supports initiatives aiming at the promotion and proliferation of chess among children and teenagers in nursery, elementary, and secondary schools. Outstanding literary contributions to the subject of chess are honored with the Lasker Cultural Award.
Among the Society's more than 130 members are renowned Grandmasters such as Viktor Kortschnoi , Boris Spasski, Lothar Schmid, Juri Awerbach, Garri Kasparow, Anatoli Karpow, Helmut Pfleger, Wolfgang Uhlmann, Rainer Knaak, Raj Tischbierek, and Martin Krämer as well as former correspondence chess champion Dr. Fritz Baumbach, politician Otto Schily, entrepreneurs Dr. Gerhard Köhler and Gernot Gauglitz, Edzard Reuter, former CEO of Daimler-Benz AG, and the German Chess Association.
The German Chess Federation
Chess has a long-standing tradition in Germany. The first historical records date back to the Middle Ages: Some passages of the "Ruodlieb" romance, which was written around 1050 at Tegernsee monastery in Bavaria, deal with chess. However, it was not before the early 19th century that modern chess clubs and organizations emerged. Established in 1827, the Berlin Chess Society is Germany's oldest still-existing chess club. In 1861 and 1874, the ever-growing number of clubs led to the establishment of regional associations (the West German, the North German, the Central German, and the South German Chess Association) as well as to the emergence of cross-regional competitions and tournaments. The long-standing wish to establish a German Chess Federation finally became reality on July 18, 1877 in Leipzig.
It is estimated that, today, more than 10 million people in Germany know how to play chess. There is hardly a household without a chess board – even if it is just a part of the children's games collection. By comparison, the number of people organized in chess clubs is low: At present, there are some 2,700 chess clubs with a total of about 92,000 members. The fact that only just under 7% of the members of the German Chess Federation are women suggests that, at least at an adult age, chess is a male domain. One reason for the low degree of organization among chess players is that, in contrast to most other types of sports, chess can also be played with family, friends, at school, on the computer, or via cell phone.
Nevertheless, providing a structure for organized chess playing requires an institution like the German Chess Federation since there is no other way to organize matches from the lowest league to the German Championships or the country's participation in international events. Besides, a system with different competitive levels is necessary as every player who participates in club championships also wants to qualify for county, regional, or state championships.
As it is normal in the world of sports, organized chess has much in common with the structure of a federal republic. The German Chess Federation is led by an honorary executive committee that is elected by the general meeting and consists of the president, three vice-presidents, the chairman of the German Chess Youth, and the full-time managing director. Moreover, there are several elected consultants who, together with the executive committee and the presidents of the regional associations, form the so-called main committee. The Berlin-based managing office of the German Chess Federation supports the work of the executive committee.
The German Chess Federation is an association of associations. Below the national level, each federal state has its own state chess association – with the exception of Baden-Württemberg, which has two associations for traditional reasons. Depending on the size of the respective state association, further sub-levels exist that allow for the proper organization of league operations.
While players below the age of 20 are considered regular members of the German Chess Federation, they are also listed separately as members of the German Chess Youth, which currently consists of some 25,000 children and teenagers.
Among the variants of chess are correspondence chess, where players communicate their moves via letters, e-mails, or the like, and chess problems: Here, players either solve composed problems or participate in composition competitions. Besides, there is the German Association for Blind and Visually Impaired Chess Players, which allows its members to participate in matches and competitions where special chess boards and clocks are used.
Chess is a combination of sports, culture, play, and science. Everyone will have their own perspective on it. Still, there is little controversy about the fact that tournament chess is a sport, and this is why the German Chess Federation has been a member of the German Sports Confederation (i.e. the current German Olympic Sports Confederation (DSOB)) since its foundation in 1950.
Chess is played not only in Germany, but throughout the world. The German Chess Federation played an active role in the establishment of the European Chess Union (ECU), whose General Secretariat was located in Berlin from 1998 to 2010. 54 national chess federations are members of this organization.
Beyond that, the German Chess Federation is a member of the World Chess Federation (FIDE) and houses one of its trainer academies in Berlin. With a total of 177 national member federations, FIDE belongs to the biggest sports associations worldwide and is recognized as an international federation by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Despite all efforts, however, chess has not become an Olympic discipline yet.